Diagnosis and treatment of changes in the cervix
When at the time of a colposcopy, fields on the cervix that are atypical and after the Pap test are observed, a diagnostic biopsy of the cervix is usually scheduled. The most common period in which a cervical biopsy is performed is the period after the cycle, and it is necessary to have a neat bacteriological swab for the intervention.
Due to the comfort of the patient, this intervention is performed under short-term general anesthesia, so besides the proper swabs, blood tests are also required to perform the procedure, as well as the consent of the internist for introduction into general anesthesia. The intervention can also be done under local anesthesia. When tissue samples are taken from the sites where atypia has been demonstrated during the intervention, samples are sent for histopathological analysis to accurately determine the character of the change.
The histopathological findings and results of this intervention may be normal and abnormal. Abnormal findings are expressed through CIN (Cervical Intraepital Neoplasia and Can Be): CIN 1- indicates the presence of milder abnormalities, CIN 2- indicates the presence of moderately developed abnormalities, and CIN 3- indicates the presence of severe abnormalities.
Treatment of initial changes of the cervix, i. erythroplakia or "wound" is successfully performed by cryotherapy, LOOP or RF excision of the change, and after its staining to distinguish it from the surrounding healthy tissue. This treatment method preserves reproductive function. The basic prerequisite is early identification and prompt response before the expansion of the abnoral precancerous cervical cells into the deeper layers of the cervix and uterus, which of course requires more extensive surgery to cure.
Treatment for advanced stages of cervical cancer includes conization, surgery, such as hysterectomy, and removal of pelvic lymph nodes with or without removal of both ovaries and both fallopian tubes, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Depending on how much the cancer has grown, one or more procedures and sometimes a combination of these procedures are done.